Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: History and Applications

Nuclear Absorption Spectroscopy: History and Applications 1.0 Introduction Nuclear Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) identifies with the investigation of the assimilation of brilliant vitality regularly inside the bright or perhaps in the obvious area of the electromagnetic range by confined molecules in the vaporous stage. Taking into account that, in Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, the analyte is acquainted with the optical light emission instrument as free molecules, all the presumable rotational and vibrational vitality levels are degenerate (of a similar vitality). As opposed to the ingestion spectra of polyatomic substance species (particles or particles) in which there is regularly an assortment of possible advances comparing to a few rotational and vibrational vitality levels superimposed on unmistakable electronic vitality levels, the spectra of free iotas are portrayed by simply a sensibly not very many sharp absorbances (line spectra) which are frequently related with changes in electronic vitality levels. The large number of conceivable diverse vita lity levels available to polyatomic species prompts right around a continuum of potential advances. Subsequently the spectra of particles (atoms) are contained to some degree wide groups which are brought about by the halfway goals of a few individual advances. Henceforth, one element of nuclear spectra is their straightforwardness contrasted with the spectra of polyatomic species. 2.0 History of Atomic Spectroscopy The verifiable past related with nuclear spectroscopy can be legitimately connected to the investigation of sunlight. In 1802, the German specialist Wollaston archived the presence of dark shaded districts (lines) inside the range of normal light. These sort of locales started to be alluded to as Fraunhofer lines to pay tribute to the researcher who really contributed the greater part of his renowned vocation getting them. It had been suggested, as right on time as 1820, these specific Fraunhofer lines came about because of assimilation forms that occurred inside the suns condition. Kirchoff and Bunsen built up that the standard yellowish light created by sodium mixes, when situated in a fire, appeared to be like the dark hued D line in suns range. A few logical examinations applying an early spectrometer lead Kirchoff (1859) to report that for all intents and purposes any substance which could produce light at a gave frequency likewise can assimilate light at that equivalent precise frequency. He was the absolute first specialist to find that theres a similar relationship viewing the retention range just as the emanation range of exactly the same component. Agricola in 1550 utilized the trademark hues related with exhaust to control the entire procedure of refining of minerals. Talbot (1826) and Wheatstone (1835) guaranteed the way that hues related with fire and sparkle incited discharges were run of the mill of unmistakable substances. The real quantitative features of nuclear spectroscopy have been defined only inside the previous 60-70 years. The replacement of photoelectric gadgets relating to visual location and furthermore the headway and commercialisation of gear return to the later piece of 1930s. The production of every one of these gadgets was made plausible not just inferable from proceeded with headway in the comprehension of the standard cosmetics and conduct of molecules however have likewise been strengthened by the developing acknowledgment that the presence of insignificant and follow amounts (low mg/kg) of explicit components can affect mechanical procedures generously. Thusly, gadgets had been created because of specialized and mechanical requests. Contemporary nuclear spectroscopy could possibly be isolated in a perfect world into 3 associated methods dependent on the procedures utilized to create, to have the option to recognize just as decide the free molecules of analyte. While nuclear assimilation spectrometry (AAS) computes the measure of light consumed by particles of analyte, nuclear discharge and nuclear fluorescence decide the measure of the radiation transmitted by analyte molecules (albeit under unmistakable conditions) that have been elevated to expanded vitality levels (energized states). Nuclear discharge (AE) and nuclear fluorescence (AF) differ fundamentally in the methods through which analyte molecules acquire the additional vitality related with their energized states; maybe by methods for collisional occasions (AE) or through the retention of brilliant vitality (AF). All of these 3 spectroscopic procedures can surely be named a follow method (which means both a more elevated level of affectability and furth ermore a high selectivity), can be relevant to various components, but then comparative with the other two, each individual strategy presents explicit advantages just as disadvantages. Since the time the appearance of business nuclear ingestion spectrometry gadgets around the mid 1960s, this particular procedure has immediately gotten wide acknowledgment to where reviews of gear accessible in logical labs have inferred, continually, that an AAS instrument is really the fourth or fifth most well known instrument (surpassed distinctly by an equalization, a pH meter, a bright noticeable spectrophotometer and potentially a HPLC). 3.0 Principles 3.1 Energy Transitions in Atoms Nuclear assimilation spectra for the most part are created in the occasion that ground state iotas retain vitality starting from a radiation source. Nuclear emanation spectra will in general be created whenever energized nonpartisan molecules release vitality after returning to the ground state or essentially a diminished vitality state. Retention of a photon related with the radiation will make an outside shell electron bounce to a more prominent vitality level, exchanging the specific iota in to an energized state. The energized molecule will unquestionably drop back again to a diminished vitality state, freeing a photon during this procedure. Particles assimilate or release radiation of particular frequencies thinking about that the allowed vitality levels of electrons in iotas are commonly fixed (not subjective). The vitality change of an ordinary progress including 2 vitality levels is corresponding to your recurrence of the ingested radiation: Eeˆ’Eg = hãžâ ½ where: Ee = vitality in energized state Eg = vitality in ground state h = Plancks consistent Þâ ½ = recurrence of the radiation Revising, we have: Þâ ½ = (Ee ˆ’ Eg)/h or on the other hand, since Þâ ½ = c/Þâ » Þâ » = hc/(Ee ˆ’ Eg) where: c = speed of light Þâ » = frequency of the consumed or discharged light The previously mentioned connections show that for some random electronic progress, the radiation of any unmistakable frequency will be potentially assimilated or transmitted. Each and every component contains an unmistakable arrangement of allowed advances and consequently a particular range. Relating to assimilation, changes incorporate primarily the excitation of electrons in the ground state, in this way the measure of advances is genuinely insignificant. Discharge, on the other hand, happens if electrons in various energized states drop to decreased vitality levels which incorporates, yet not confined to, the ground state. That is the reason the outflow range has unmistakably more lines contrasted with the retention range. At whatever point a progress is through just as to the ground express, its named a reverberation change. Also, the following unearthly line is named as a reverberation line. 3.2 Atomization Nuclear spectroscopy requires that molecules having a place with the component of intrigue stay in the nuclear state (i.e not combined with different parts inside a compound) also that they should be appropriately isolated in space. In staples, essentially all the parts exist as mixes or maybe buildings and, subsequently, ought to be changed into impartial iotas (atomized) before nuclear retention can be practiced. Atomization requires confining particles in to singular mixes (by vaporization) and afterward breaking these mixes in to iotas. Most generally it is achieved essentially by presenting the analyte to over the top warmth utilizing a fire or maybe plasma despite the fact that elective systems can be used. An answer including the analyte is ordinarily positioned in the fire or plasma as fine fog. The genuine dissolvable quickly vanishes, abandoning strong particles inside the analyte which disintegrates just as decays to molecules which may assimilate radiation. This wonder is basically the nuclear assimilation. This component is shown schematically in the figure adjoining this portrayal. 4.0 Instrumentation The normal structure of the nuclear ingestion spectrometer is strikingly simple and not unmistakable from the more notable spectrophotometers used for fluid stage examines. It is comprised of: A light source that creates the range of the component of intrigue. Usually an empty cathode light (HCL) and furthermore the terminal less release light (EDL) are utilized as light sources A molecule supply (which fills in as an ingestion cell) through which free iotas of your analyte are generally delivered normally a fire. Generally a nebulizer-burner framework just as an electrothermal heater work as a particle repository. A monochromator, (a bit of hardware to determine the transmitted light in to its part frequencies) which has a customizable leave cut to pick the frequency commending to your thunderous line. For the most part a bright obvious (UV-Vis) grinding monochromator is used. An indicator (a photomultiplier tube (PMT) or perhaps a strong state finder (SSD) having auxiliary gadgets to decide the radiation power and furthermore to intensify the following sign. Fire photometers have one pivotal detriment the fire is a brilliant wellspring of radiation. The instrument must perceive the commitment from the fire and dismissal it. The intensity of the pillar transmitted to the identifier (P) will probably be proportional to the intensity of the bar episode on the example (Po) barring the intensity of the shaft consumed (PA) by the example including a commitment from the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Bless Me Ultima Def Free Essays

Lopez 1 Tiffani Lopez Ms. Carlos Period 4 March 4, 2013 DEF Term: Pathos Definition: the quality or force in a genuine educational encounter or in writing, music, discourse, or different types of articulation, of bringing out a sentiment of pity or empathy. (http://word reference. We will compose a custom exposition test on Favor Me Ultima Def or then again any comparative point just for you Request Now reference. com/peruse/emotion? s=t) Example: In Chapter 6 of Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me Ultima, Anaya utilizes tenderness, â€Å"For the first occasion when I would be away from the assurance of my mom (Anaya51). Capacity: The poignancy utilized on the above model is critical on the grounds that it clarifies the measure of affection and connection Antonio has towards his mom, Maria. Related article: Arguments Made in Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry It shows how she enormous of an effect she is a major part of his life. It likewise depicts the run of the mill connection among child and mother. In which, the mother is playing the defensive, supporting gatekeeper. While her posterity â€son (for this situation) †is innocent to the â€Å"real world. † In the content where it expresses this would be the first run through Antonio would leave his mom, can be contrasted with the child winged animal leaving the home. The character of Maria could identify with the home and the child fowl to Antonio. The home speaking to insurance and security, and the infant feathered creature speaks to dread and timidity. This Lopez 2 Examination hints how guileless and bashful Antonio becomes without his mom at school. This poignancy sets up a temperament of empathy. The temperament is sympathy on the grounds that Antonio’s dread and anxiety is reasonable. The creator is contending that Antonio needs develop and turn into a man, however is frightful on the grounds that this is something totally new to him. The general tone of this case of feeling is concerned. The tone is this since you can detect Antonio’s stress for himself without his mom. The purpose of the tenderness was to bring consideration the significance of a maternal figure in Antonio’s life. The general topic imparted by utilizing this tenderness is that life is a learning experience; gaining some new useful knowledge, you learn terrified. Plath’s point was to bring out concern whether Antonio will â€Å"survive† school. The emotion identifies with the whole part 6 on the grounds that all through the section Antonio confesses to wanting for his mother’s nearness since he is forlorn, yet expected to turn into a man. Works Cited â€Å"Pathos. † Dictionary. com Unabridged. Irregular House, Inc. 03 Mar. 2013. Word reference. com http://word reference. reference. com/peruse/tenderness. Anaya, Rudolfo A. Favor Me, Ultima. New York: Warner Books, 1994. Print. The most effective method to refer to Bless Me Ultima Def, Essay models

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Is It Possible to Outgrow ADHD

Is It Possible to Outgrow ADHD ADHD Print Do Kids Outgrow ADHD? ADHD changes over time, but its rarely outgrown By Keath Low Keath Low, MA, is a therapist and clinical scientist with the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities at the University of North Carolina. She specializes in treatment of ADD/ADHD. Learn about our editorial policy Keath Low Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on February 20, 2020 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Hero Images / Getty Images It was once thought that children simply outgrow ADHD as they develop, mature, and age. We now know that although ADHD begins in childhood, troubling symptoms can continue into adolescence and beyondâ€"throughout a persons life. While some kids may seem to outgrow the disorder (or no longer have symptoms that result in impairment), in most cases kids with ADHD grow up to be adults with ADHD. Though ADHD is chronic in nature, symptoms may certainly present in differing ways as a person moves through life stages. These symptoms may even diminish as that person grows olderâ€"for example, ?hyperactivity and fidgetiness may decrease with age.?? Certainly, teens and adults whose ADHD has been addressed over the years will have a range of resources and strategies to turn to when ADHD symptoms become problematic. Diagnosed at a Later Age Many people with ADHD may not be diagnosed until their teenage or adult years. This is particularly true of those with predominately inattentive symptoms, which are less disruptive and less overt as compared to impulsive/hyperactive symptoms. Though the person may have successfully managed symptoms in childhood, the teenage and adult years bring on increased demands for sustained attention, planning, organization, and self-management that can make coping with ADHD more and more difficult. People who are diagnosed with teens or adults may actually find a sense of relief in the diagnosis, which explains a wide range of lifelong challenges. It can be particularly helpful to learn that there are both medical treatments and strategies that can make a positive difference. In addition, having a diagnosis can open the door to helpful conversations with parents, friends, and partners.   Teens With ADHD Teens with  untreated  ADHD have few tools and resources for managing their symptoms. As a result, they are more likely than their typical peers to have difficulty juggling multiple classes and extra-curricular activities. Like other teens, teens with ADHD are separating from family and becoming more independentâ€"but with fewer internal restraints, teens with ADHD are more likely to get involved in risky behavior.   All these challenges can lead to injury and/or lowered self-esteem. Untreated ADHD teens are more likely to experience a higher incidence of driving accidents, underachievement in school/work, relationship problems, and even substance abuse.?? Adults With ADHD Symptoms in adulthood can be more varied and present in more subtle waysâ€"for example, internal restlessness, wandering attention, disorganization, procrastination, impulsive decision making, etc. Though symptoms may be less visible, they can be just as impairing. For example, adults with ADHD may have difficulty managing tasks at work  or may respond impulsively in situations that require self-restraint and tact.?? This can lead to  more frequent job changes or unemployment. They may also have a difficult time maintaining long-term friendships and romantic relationships.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Marie Curie - Mother of Modern Physics

Marie Curie was the first truly famous woman scientist in the modern world.  She was known as the  Mother of Modern Physics for her pioneer work in research about radioactivity, a word she coined. She was the first woman awarded a Ph.D. in research science in Europe  and the first woman professor at the Sorbonne. Curie discovered and isolated polonium and radium, and established the nature of radiation and beta rays. She won Nobel Prizes in  1903 (Physics) and 1911 (Chemistry) and was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize, and the first person to win Nobel Prizes in two different scientific disciplines. Fast Facts: Marie Curie Known For: Research in radioactivity and discovery of polonium and radium. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize (Physics in 1903), and the first person to win a second Nobel Prize (Chemistry in 1911)Also Known As: Maria SklodowskaBorn: November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, PolandDied: July 4, 1934 in Passy, FranceSpouse: Pierre Curie (m. 1896-1906)Children: Irà ¨ne and ÈveInteresting Fact: Marie Curies daughter, Irà ¨ne, also won a Nobel Prize (Chemistry in 1935) Early Life and Education Marie Curie was born in Warsaw, the youngest of five children. Her father was a physics teacher, her mother, who died when Curie was 11, was also an educator. After graduating with high honors in her early schooling, Marie Curie found herself, as a woman, without options in Poland for higher education. She spent some time as a governess, and in 1891 followed her sister, already a gynecologist, to Paris. In Paris, Marie Curie enrolled at the Sorbonne. She graduated in first place in physics (1893), then, on a scholarship, returned for a degree in mathematics in which she took second place (1894). Her plan was to return to teach in Poland. Research and Marriage She began to work as a researcher in Paris. Through  her work, she met a French scientist, Pierre Curie, in 1894 when he was 35. They were married on July 26, 1895, in a civil marriage. Their first child, Irà ¨ne, was born in 1897. Marie Curie continued to work on her research and began work as a physics lecturer at a girls school. Radioactivity Inspired by work on radioactivity in uranium by Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie began research on Becquerel rays to see if other elements also had this quality. First, she discovered radioactivity in thorium, then demonstrated that the radioactivity is not a property of an interaction between elements but is an atomic property, a property of the interior of the atom rather than how it is arranged in a molecule. On April 12, 1898, she published her hypothesis of a still-unknown radioactive element, and worked with pitchblende and chalcocite, both uranium ores, to isolate this element. Pierre joined her in this research. Marie Curie and Pierre Curie thus discovered first polonium (named for her native Poland) and then radium. They announced these elements in 1898. Polonium and radium were present in very small amounts in pitchblende, along with larger quantities of uranium. Isolating the very small amounts of the new elements took years of work. On January 12, 1902, Marie Curie isolated pure radium, and her 1903 dissertation resulted in the first advanced scientific research degree to be awarded to a woman in France—the first doctorate in science awarded to a woman in all of Europe. In 1903, for their work, Marie Curie, her husband Pierre, and Henry Becquerel, were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. The Nobel Prize committee reportedly first considered giving the award to Pierre Curie and Henry Becquerel, and Pierre worked behind the scenes to ensure that Marie Curie won appropriate recognition by being included. It was also in 1903 that Marie and Pierre lost a child, born prematurely. Radiation poisoning from working with radioactive substances had begun to take a toll, though the Curies did not know it or were in denial of that. They were both too sickly to attend the 1903 Nobel ceremony in Stockholm. In 1904, Pierre was given a professorship at the Sorbonne for his work. The professorship established more financial security for the Curie family—Pierres father had moved in to help care for the children. Marie was given a small salary and a title as Chief of the Laboratory. That same year, the Curies established the use of radiation therapy for cancer and lupus, and their second daughter, Ève, was born. Ève would later write a biography of her mother. In 1905, the Curies finally traveled to Stockholm, and Pierre gave the Nobel Lecture. Marie was annoyed by the attention to their romance rather than to their scientific work. From Wife to Professor But security was short-lived, as Pierre was killed suddenly in 1906 when he was run over by a horse-drawn carriage on a Paris street. This left Marie Curie a widow with responsibility for raising her two young daughters. Marie Curie was offered a national pension, but turned it down. A month after Pierres death, she was offered his chair at the Sorbonne, and she accepted. Two years later she was elected a full professor—the first woman to hold a chair at the Sorbonne. Further Work Marie Curie spent the next years organizing her research, supervising the research of others, and raising funds. Her Treatise on Radioactivity was published in 1910. Early in 1911, Marie Curie was denied election to the French Academy of Sciences by one vote. Emile Hilaire Amagat said of the vote, Women cannot be part of the Institute of France. Marie Curie refused to have her name resubmitted for nomination and refused to allow the Academy to publish any of her work for ten years.  The press attacked her for her candidacy. Nevertheless, that same year she was appointed director of the Marie Curie Laboratory, part of the Radium Institute of the University of Paris, and of the Institute for Radioactivity in Warsaw, and she was awarded a second Nobel Prize. Tempering her successes that year was a scandal: a newspaper editor alleged an affair between Marie Curie and a married scientist. He denied the charges, and the controversy ended when the editor and scientist arranged a duel, but neither fired. Years later, Marie and Pierres granddaughter married the grandson of the scientist which whom she may have had the affair. During World War I, Marie Curie chose to support the French war effort actively. She put her prize winnings into war bonds and fitted ambulances with portable x-ray equipment for medical purposes, driving the vehicles to the front lines. She established two hundred permanent x-ray installations in France and Belgium. After the war, her daughter Irene joined Marie Curie as an assistant at the laboratory. The Curie Foundation was established in 1920 to work on medical applications for radium. Marie Curie took an important trip to the United States in 1921 to accept the generous gift of a gram of pure radium for research. In 1924, she published her biography of her husband. Illness and Death The work of Marie Curie, her husband, and colleagues with radioactivity was done in ignorance of its effect on human health. Marie Curie and her daughter Irene contracted leukemia, apparently induced by exposure to high levels of radioactivity. The notebooks of Marie Curie are still so radioactive that they cannot be handled. Marie Curies health was declining seriously by the end of the 1920s. Cataracts contributed to failing vision. Marie Curie retired to a sanatorium, with her daughter Eve as her companion. She died of pernicious anemia, also most likely an effect of the radioactivity in her work, in 1934.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Portrait Of Stephen Dedalus - 2255 Words

The Portrait of Stephen Dedalus As life goes on, certain situations can form the way people become as adults, but our own persona has the final outcome. â€Å"A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man† communicates with readers the life of a young man named Stephen Dedalus. The young boy grew up in Ireland in the late nineteenth century. Stephen slowly climbs up to many decision-making about his own life. His Catholic faith and Irish nationality heavily influenced to guide the young boy’s life. When Stephen was a little boy, he attended a heavy religious strict boarding school. Stephen then starts attending other schools, where he grows and shines to being and incredible writer while also a student in the school theater. When Stephen encounters his first sexual experience with a young Dublin prostitute he after begins to feel shameful and have guilt in himself, so he then tries to reconcile with his faith in the Catholic Church. Stephen becomes interactive and the role model of the Catholic religion. Wh en the director of the school recommends him to consider going into the priesthood, he examines the offer. He realizes that the desire of beauty should not be oppressed nor ignored. He was then determined to free himself from all limits and decides to leave Ireland to escape and achieve a life as an artist. When the novel opens, the reader is in the mind of Stephen Dedalus, in this time he is just a little boy. He goes through childhood using his senses, feeling, touching, hearingShow MoreRelated Stephen Dedalus in James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man3169 Words   |  13 PagesStephen Dedalus in James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man When the soul of a man is born in this country there are nets flung at it to hold it back from flight. You talk to me of nationality, language, religion. 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For example, On 1 September 1888, at the age of half-past-six, Joyce was taken by his parents to be enrolled in the finest Catholic preparatory school in Ireland, Clongowes Wood College, situatedRead MoreImagery Pattern of Clouds in the Portrait of an Artist by James Joyce 941 Words   |  4 Pages The Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce is widely recognized by New Critics as one of the greatest novels of its age for its aesthetic artistry. 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I will explain how theRead MoreEssay on Bird Imagery in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man843 Words   |  4 PagesBird Imagery in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man The works of twentieth-century Irish writer James Joyce resound vividly with a unique humanity and genius. His novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, published in 1916, is a convincing journey through the inner mind and spirit of Stephen Dedalus. Portrayed with incredible fluency and realism, imagery guides the reader through the swift current of growth tangible in the juvenile hero. Above all heavy imagery in the novel isRead More Essay on Art in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man1577 Words   |  7 PagesArt in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Stephen Dedalus philosophy of art, expressed in his discussion with Lynch in Chapter Five, seems essentially romantic, yet the novel is written in a very realistic mode typical of the twentieth century. This apparent inconsistency may direct us to one way of interpreting this novel. Dedalus idea of art may be Romantic, but because his world is no longer the world of the Romantics he has to see art more as a fundamental validationRead More A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Essay1512 Words   |  7 PagesA Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Stephen Dedalus - Rebel Without a Cause? His soul had arisen from the grave of boyhood, spurning her grave-clothes. Yes! Yes! Yes! He would create proudly out of the freedom and power of his soul, as the great artificer whose name he bore, a living thing, new and soaring and beautiful, impalpable, imperishable Throughout A Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man Stephen Dedalus is persistently portrayed as the outsider, apart from the society he andRead MoreJane Eyre And A Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man1473 Words   |  6 Pages The novels Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontà «, and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, by James Joyce, both exemplify the bildungsroman style, showing the growth of the characters over the course of each book. As bildungsroman novels, both texts share elements common to the genre, such as focusing primarily on character thoughts and reactions. They also share traits like periods of character development being tied to a particular place. However, they differ in other areas like narration style

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Architectural Project Free Essays

Parliamentary buildings are always meant to attract different people meaning that the grander the structure, the stronger the public and national interest and reaction to them.   These buildings normally reflect the tradition and stability showing that they portray the image or the commanding presence of the state (Daniel, 1995). The parliamentary buildings are also known to provide ideals of national identity and pride of a given state showing its strength. We will write a custom essay sample on Architectural Project or any similar topic only for you Order Now    Splendor and command, even majesty is always shown in the grandest of parliamentary buildings especially those in America in the nineteenth century. The Norman Foster New German parliament is a project of architecture since it has developed after destruction of many parliamentary buildings.   Attention was first devoted to German development, both in regard to the Bundestag building in Berlin (Michael, 1998). The Reichstag building is historical known for its richness in sensitive historical and political associations.  Ã‚   These buildings have raised some questions of national symbols, questions of the European traditions and democratic aspiration of the newly reunited Germany. This why there has been debates on whether the new parliament building is something to do with politics or architecture.   But in the real sense it is believed to be an architectural project following the changes that have been experienced in the field of architecture since early ages in the building and rebuilding of the parliament. (Dieter, 2003). Early architectural changes began from year 1949 – 1971 following reunification of Germany.   They started rebuilding projects and expanding the parliament in Bonn.   Architectural changes were undertaken from 1949 by a leading architect of the day by the name Haris Schwippert. He laid down a new chamber for the Bundestag which was completed for a short while. The project was made up of glass showing that they were a trademark of German post-war architectural style.   Several small developments existed to the parliament buildings site by 1969 when a large multi-storey building was erected to accommodate members and other services.   The building consisted of 30 storeys and was a notable landmark in Bonn region since it could be seen from Rhine. Towards the end of 1969 the federal cabinet ordered a stop to the adhoc building programs of the government in Bonn (Stephen, 2005).   The cabinet then formed a commission to look at a wider town planning implications of government office and parliamentary accommodation. Restructuring of the town and new buildings was an architectural concern in the country.   The parliament new building was to contain office blocks for government, child care facilities, an international conference center, new buildings for Bundestage, and the bundestrat and finally a hotel with apartment. All these led to a lot of complications and confusions.   This forced the different architectural firms to do some projects in collaboration with other firms. This led to further development in the redesigning of the Bonn parliamentary building from 1971 – 1992. (Foster, 2000). The architectural firms made a lot of restructural challenges, arrangements and consultation with the concerned citizens.   The revised plan was then announced or declared in the December 1978.   Further architectural competitions were experienced by this time. In1983 another complication emerged when it was found out that the fabric of the main chamber (plenarsaal) was seriously impaired. This required the parliament building to be demolished as it could not be re-built a according to the architectural findings. Various experts were called for advice and in the upshot it emerged that preservation of the existing building in its framework would greatly increase expenditure because of its unsuitable nature. The decision to build new parliamentary building was finally made after along discussion that did not want the building to be demolished.   Many stakeholders wanted the only affected chamber to be rebuilt (Corola, 2004).   However the demolition of the new chamber succeeded since the state government had limited power to intervene in matters affecting the federal parliament. The rebuilding of the chamber included other ancillary facilities adjacent to it meaning that the project was expected to be wider than just the chamber it self. (Jaeger, 1999). How to cite Architectural Project, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Implementation of Robotics in Artificial Intelligence †Samples

Question: Discuss about the Implementation of Robotics in Artificial Intelligence. Answer: Introduction Many technology organizations have been developed with the view of inventing robots that fit in different sectors of the manufacturing industry (Bock Linner, 2015). This report is based on Automobile Association () organization which is a small Artificial Intelligence company located in Brisbane in Australia. This company is upcoming and has shown interest in designing robots that are fit for domestic use, in the mining industry, transport and manufacturing industry across Australia and Globally in future. The main objectives of this report are to design robots such as dry cleaners that are suitable for domestic use, excavators for mining and other machinery for manufacturing industry. Through its vision, artificial intelligence aims at developing computerized systems that can perform tasks that require human ability like visual recognition, speech recognition, language translation and decision-making. This decision was reached after research that showed that many companies in Australia are still using outdated technology in their production hence experience low productivity. The company has made several assumptions such as; The robots to be designed will perform tasks as expected without malfunctioning. Automobile Association Company has a ready market for robots they will embark on developing. The Company has had a competitive advantage over its rivals through manufacturing minor things like computing gadgets, and so it will be the case on the proposed project. The robots designed will have minimum risks possible. A robot is a device programmed mechanically to perform tasks that human perform and interact with its environment without being the help of human interaction (Bock, 2015). Robotic technology- is a technology that deals with the design, development, operation and use of robots as well as using computer systems to control the robots, achieve sensory feedback and facilitate information processing (Pruthi, 2012). This technology is used to design machines that can take the human position in the industry. Robotics is a branch of engineering that entails the invention, design, production and operation of robots. It is a field which imbricates with electronics, artificial intelligence, computer science, nanotechnology, bioengineering, and mechatronics (Shneier Bostelman, 2015). Current use of Robots Currently, robots have been employed almost in every sector of the industry. Their increased used led to artificial intelligence company develop an attraction in the designing of robots that would be used in mining, transport, manufacturing industries and domestic use. Some current use of robots developed by other manufacturer are; Space exploration- robots that can be controlled from a far distant have been designing and employed in the space by scientists to conduct their explorations (Jno, et al. 2012). These are commanded to go to space and gather specific data that the scientists use in their research about the space. Some of these types of robots are the Mars exploration rovers and Hubble space telescope. Military robots- these are independent robots that are controlled by the use of a remote. They are specifically designed for military purposes (Merlet, 2012). Military robots have been in use since the World War II and also in the Soviet teletanks. The USA has an advanced form of military robots that are now being designed to operate individually and not as an army. Military robots help in keeping a country secure both locally and externally. Medical robots- these are machines that are used in medical fields to perform different tasks. These robots perform or help doctors in complicated and sensitive field surgery. Other medical robots can carry out tests and analysis of drugs at a higher speed than human beings. Consumer robots are used to entertain and interact with the owner of businesses and their clients. These robots are either controlled from a common desktop with an organization or from a mobile phone. Types of robots used in various industries The main objective of Artificial Intelligence Company is to invent, design and develop robots that will be of help in the field of mining, transport, domestic use, and manufacturing industries (Nilsson, 2014). Some types of robots that are being used in this sectors are discussed below. Mine inspection robot- this robot was designed to inspect the areas that could be dangerous to undertake to mine before sending humans into place. It is controlled from a distant by the use of a remote. It has an HD video system with a PTZ camera, 10" taller tires, and wireless tablet interface. Tethered fiber- optic robot- this robot is designed in such a way that it can be sent hundreds of feet down in a mine shaft (Brady, Gerhardt Davidson, 2012). Due to the long distance that it travels, it is fiber optic cable to ensure that the signal remains high. Litter- robot this robot is built with a sensor that knows when your cat has visited, and after that, the unit rotates like that of a cement mixer to sift and empty clumps into a waste tray (Geraci, 2012). This robot helps keep the house tidy. Its main downsides are that it is expensive to afford and its huge size makes it difficult to be fit for people with small apartments. Robotic lawn mowers- these are robots that are built to cut the grass within a given area without the need of a driver. This can cut lawn up to three-quarters of an acre. Vacuum cleaners and floor- washing robots- they clean floors with sweeping them wet and mopping functions. Vacuum cleaners wash clothes and dry-sweep them immediately. Transport Robots Travel mate robotics built an autonomous robot suitcase that could move in both vertical and horizontal directions (Cohen Feigenbaum, 2014). These robots are used in different industries to transport materials either through lifting them up or by pushing them along the horizontal direction. Vehicles, airplanes, and ships are also types of robots. They help in transportation of goods and services over long distances within a short period (Kanal Kumar, 2012). Military soldiers use planes to transport their army member who sustains injuries during times of war for treatment. Industrial robots are robots used within an industries manufacturing environment. They have mainly articulated arms that are developed for applications such as welding, painting, material handling and many others. Arc welding robots- they use an electric arc between a metal base and an electrode using consumable or non-consumable electrodes. A robot is used in this process to apply excessive heating to metal at the joint making it to melt down and intermix. Robotic arc welders are consistent in their production, and they produce impeccable repeatability ensuring high-quality welds. Painting robots- painting robots are built to perform painting tasks. Most painting robots in the industry are developed by KUKA, ABB, and other manufacturing companies. The need for these robots has been activated by the high demand in the painting industry in today world. Painting robots perform the task faster and with high uniformity and accuracy as compared to humans. How to incorporate robotic in artificial intelligence company future As the use of robots is widely embraced by many organizations, artificial intelligence company conducted research about robots and is now inclined to adopting this technology in its operations. The company is now focusing on designing robots that will be used in household chores, mining, and transport and manufacturing industry. This leads to being a challenge to the company since it is small and upcoming. However, the company has laid down a strategy that will see it use robots in its future production. To incorporate robotic in the company, the company has hired experts who will help in designing robots that will help the company to establish itself in Brisbane and Australia at large through supplying robots that perform quality tasks. After gathering ample experience in the field of robotics, the company can now start employing more improved robots that will aid it in carrying out its production process. Artificial Intelligence Company will also replace its security people by adopting the use of surveillance robots. This will aid the company in reducing the operating costs as there will be no continuous payment made to the robots after settling the IT specialists who develop the robots. The company will also use robots to perform tasks that were performed by human labor. This will assist the company to increase its productivity as robots are faster and more accurate compared to humans. Short term and Long term options to implement the robotic strategy The short options that the company will take to implement the robotic strategy will be commercializing the invention, designing, and manufacture of upgraded robots than those of their rivals in the fields of domestic, mining, and transport and manufacturing industries. This will aid the company to be established in the Australia market for producing robots that are more efficient in doing their tasks. Artificial Intelligence Company will realize enough capital for expanding and upgrading its manufacturing processes through producing quality advanced robots that lure more customers to shift from the company's opponents (Ginsberg, 2012). The company will look forward to producing robots that will operate without the aid of human interaction by incorporating sensory devices. The long-term option for the company will be to incorporate robots in its operation. This option will be seen through after the company has been established as one of the most competent robot manufacturers in Brisbane and entire Australia. This will bring the need for incorporating robots in the company's' manufacturing process so as to increase the productivity as there will be an expansion in the market. After initializing robots in the company's operation successfully, the organization will look forward to going global with its robotic products. Decreased production costs: robots ensure increased speed in production and accuracy leading to an increase in the overall production. This helps a faster return on the invested capital. Improved quality: robots produce high-quality products due to their high accuracy level. They ensure that the goods and services are up to standards, therefore, reducing the cost that a quality control officer would have caused an organization. Longer working hours: robots have more energy compared to humans and works without getting exhausted. Increased profitability through increased productivity and operation costs Capital cost: implementing robots require a high capital cost. This makes the ROI from a robot project to take longer that the expected normal time. Limitations: robots have some limitations in performing their tasks. Also, robots are designed in a way that they can't perform all tasks. Expertise: to minimize reliance on automation companies, one will need to train engineers on how to program robots which are too costly. Solutions to overcome risks and disadvantages The above problems are challenging to overcome. However, there is a way to curb them to a certain degree. can specialize to manufacture robots that are less expensive and programmed to perform all tasks that a human does. The risk of humans being hurt by robots is also witnessed amid robots presence. This can be resolved if the company invents robots that human-friendly. Unemployment: robots replaces human in the company on their automation. A single robot performs a task that hundreds of employees could have been allocated to perform (Sharkey Sharkey, 2012). These people become unemployed once robots are deployed in the company. This can be addressed by creating awareness for the people to observe market niches and employ themselves. Security: Robots are faced with the task of maintaining security (Inabnet III, 2012). A person can steal his way in an organization and give the robots instructions that it may end up performing. This is addressed by designing a robot that requires a password before receiving commands. Conclusion In conclusion, the objectives of this report were to invent, design and manufacture robots that will be of great help in domestic use, mining, transport, and manufacturing industries. This report shows that from the research conducted by artificial intelligence Company, there are numerous modifications that can be done on the existing robots to make them more productive and reliable. These findings of the research are of great importance to the company as they aid the company to lay down a strategy on how to design and implement robots that will help in the above-mentioned sectors. However, there are limitations as the robots require a lot of modification to perform as many tasks as possible. Also, the limitation of security makes robots vulnerable to access of a company's information for unauthorized parties. This report has achieved the company's objectives of implementing robotics by highlighting on how the company will undergo a gradual change in adopting and using robots in its operations. The report prospects the company by outlining its short-term options and long-term options that will be achieved by this organization within the first five years of adoption of robotics. I would recommend to the CEO of Artificial Intelligence Company that the company to begin with designing robots that are not quite involving like those for domestic use such as vacuum cleaners. The CEO and the executive management should commission sessions in the company that will train engineers on how to develop and control robots through a hired robotic expert. The organization should ensure continued research and investment in the field of robotics. This will aid in the view of transforming the means that the company does its activities through human labor to robots in future to enable the company witness huge returns. References Bock, T. (2015). The future of construction automation: Technological disruption and theupcoming ubiquity of robotics.Automation in Construction,59, 113-121. 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